Person-Centered Practices in Assisted Living (PC-PAL), Resident and Staff Forms


Evaluation of person-centered practices
  • Proxy
  • Person with a Disability
Administration Method
Administration Mode
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) and the Center for Excellence in Assisted Living (CEAL) Collaborative
Item Count
Age Related Disability

Instrument Citation(s)

UNC-CEAL Collaborative. (2014). Toolkit for Person-Centeredness in Assisted Living: Informational guide
and questionnaires of person-centered practice in assisted living (PC-PAL). PDF

Instrument Domains

DomainNumber of Items
Caregiver Support6
Family caregiver/natural support involvement4
Family caregiver/natural support wellbeing2
Access to resources0
Training and skill-building0
Choice and Control19
Personal freedoms and dignity of risk19
Choice of services and supports0
Personal choices and goals0
Community Inclusion21
Meaningful activity11
Resources and settings to facilitate inclusion4
Social connectedness and relationships6
Consumer Leadership in System Development2
System supports meaningful consumer involvement2
Evidence of meaningful caregiver involvement0
Evidence of meaningful consumer involvement0
Holistic Health and Functioning6
Individual health and functioning6
Health promotion and prevention0
Human and Legal Rights9
Informed decision-making2
Optimizing the preservation of legal and human rights1
Freedom from abuse and neglect0
Supporting individuals in exercising their human and legal rights0
Level of Caregiver Well-Being1
Person-Centered Planning and Coordination7
Person-centered planning3
Service Delivery and Effectiveness6
Person's needs met and goals realized5
System Performance and Accountability3
Data management and use3
Evidence-based practice0
Financing and service delivery structures0
Adequately compensated with benefits1
Culturally competent1
Demonstrated competencies when appropriate2
Person-centered approach to services46
Safety of and respect for the worker2
Sufficient workforce numbers dispersion and availability2
Workforce engagement and participation3
Staff Turnover0
Equitable access and resource allocation0
Transparency and consistency0
Fluctuation of Need0

Psychometric Citation

  • Zimmerman, S., Allen, J., Cohen, L.W., Pinkowitz, J., Reed, D., Coffey, W.O., Reed, P., Lepore, M., &
    Sloane, P.D. (2015). A measure of person-centered practices in assisted living: The PC-PAL. The
    Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine, 16(2), 132-137.

    Type of Publication
    Peer review
    Instrument Language
    Sample: Age (Mean and Range)

    Resident: < 70 (15%): 70-79 (14%); 80 + (71%);
    Staff: <40 (35%); 40-49 (24%); 50+ (41%)

    Sample: Age Group

    18-64 Years, 65+ Years

    Sample: Countries/State

    United States

    Sample: Disability Type

    Age Related Disability

    Sample: Gender (%male)

    Resident: 27%;
    Staff: 6%

    Sample: Race/Ethnicity (%)

    Resident: 93% white;
    Staff: 56% white;

    Sample: Sampling Strategy

    Stratified sampling

    Sample: Size

    228 residents; 123 staff

    Reliability: Internal Consistency

    Cronbach's Alpha for the resident version (ɑ=.96); Cronbach's Alpha for the resident version (ɑ=.96)

    Validity: Construct (Convergent and Discriminant)

    Both questionnaires discriminated among residences; Both questionnaires were significantly related to the culture change

    Study design